Disclaimer: The transcript that follows has been generated using artificial intelligence. We strive to be as accurate as possible, but minor errors and slightly off timestamps may be present.
You can click the timestamp to jump to that time.
Mike Duncan (00:01):
This week’s episode is brought to you by Lynda.com. Lynda.com is the online learning platform with over 3,000 on-demand video courses to help you strengthen your business, technology, and creative skills. For a free 10-day trial, visit Lynda.com slash Revolutions. That’s L-Y-N-D-A dot com slash Revolutions. Lynda.com is for problem solvers, for the curious, for people who want to make things happen. Maybe you want to master Excel, learn new negotiation tactics, build a website, or boost your Photoshop skills. Go to Lynda.com and feed your curious mind.
I can hardly recommend all their audio and video software tutorials, but I am about to start plowing my way through Lynda’s extensive library of business skills tutorials. You know, accounting fundamentals, finance fundamentals, income tax fundamentals… it’s about time I started taking this stuff seriously.
With a Lynda.com membership, you can watch and learn from top experts, stream thousands of video courses on-demand, and learn at your own schedule. The courses are structured so you can watch them from start to finish, or consume them in bite-sized pieces. You can browse each course’s transcript to follow along, or search for an answer and skip to that point in the video. Take notes as you go, and refer to them later, you can download tutorials and watch them on the go, including access on your iOS or Android device. You can create and save playlists of courses you want to watch to customize your learning path, or share it with friends and colleagues or other team members.
Your Lynda.com membership will give you unlimited access to training on hundreds of topics, all for one flat rate. Whether you’re looking to become an industry expert, you’re passionate about a hobby, or you just want to learn something new, I want you to visit Lynda.com slash Revolutions to sign up for your free 10-day trial. That is L-Y-N-D-A dot com slash R-E-V-O-L-U-T-I-O-N-S. Hello, and welcome to Revolutions.
Episode 3.34b – Philippe Egalité As I mentioned back in episode 3.25, the Duc de Orléans, the renegade Prince of the Blood who was now styling himself Philippe Egalité, deserves more attention than I have been able to give him. Since he is about to get his head chopped off, I figured that now would be the perfect time to try to correct this oversight. So without further ado, let’s hop in the wayback machine and head back into the days of the Ancien Régime, because the story of the coming of the French Revolution is absolutely not complete without explaining the part played by the Duc de Orléans.
Young Louis-Philippe Joseph d’Orléans was born in 1747 into the House of Orléans, the senior cadet branch of the Royal House of Bourbon. His grandfather was Philippe d’Orléans, a younger brother of King Louis XIV, and it was to him that both the family name and their cadet branch status trace back to.
The Orléans branch, being so close to the immediate royal family but just outside of it, earned their senior male patriarchs the distinction of being the first Prince of the Blood, an official court position reserved for the most senior royal prince not in the king’s immediate family. What this meant in practice was that if all the inner circle bourbons were to die out, the throne would pass to the House of Orléans, and that is going to be important.
When Louis-Philippe was 22, he married one of his cousins Louisa Marie, who happened to be the daughter of an insanely wealthy duke, who himself happened to be the son of one of King Louis XIV’s legitimized illegitimate children, if you can follow along with that. So Louisa Marie’s dowry combined with the already huge estates of the House of Orléans meant that when Louis-Philippe inherited the title duked Orléans from his father, he became one of the richest men in France. This is also going to be important.
From very early on, Louis-Philippe cultivated an antagonistic edge in his dealings with the king’s immediate royal family. He first ran afoul of them in the early 1770s, when Lord Chancellor Maupou made his play Shutting Down the Parlement, which we talked about way back in episode 3.3.
While Louis-Philippe, not yet duked Orléans, set himself up as a champion and patron of the parlement. For this, he earned popular acclaim and the enmity of the king’s ministry, and a lettre de cachet was issued exiling him from Paris. Not the last time that would happen. He kept up his tweaking of the bourbons after Louis XVI ascended to the throne, and it took no time at all for Louis-Philippe and Marie Antoinette to come to utterly despise each other. When his father died in 1785, Louis-Philippe became the duke d’Orléans, and first prince of the blood, which rankled the king’s inner circle to no end.
He also inherited the Palais Royale, a huge palace just a few blocks from the Tuileries in Paris. One of the subtle little quirks of ancien régime law was that royal residences, like the Palais Royale, were not subject to official censorship laws. So when Orléans inherited the property, he threw its doors open to the public and basically created a safe space to print and distribute material that might otherwise run afoul of the censors. The arcades of the Palais were soon brimming with shops and cafes and books, pamphlets and newspapers that advocated all kinds of crazy stuff were distributed at will.
So just as the pre-revolution was heating up, the Palais Royale served as the great clearinghouse for any and all dangerously seditious notions like, hey, maybe we should call the Estates General again. This political and literary patronage made Orléans very popular with the people and very unpopular with the inner royal family, most especially Queen Marie Antoinette, who saw in everything Orléans did further proof that he was going to try to overthrow the Bourbons and set himself up as king. Now for his part, Orléans hated the Queen right back, believing her to be a frivolous spendthrift whose loyalty to France was suspect at best.
So the really critical thing to understand here is that in the late 1780s, when the political and economic reform movement was running into Enlightenment philosophy, which was running into complaints about the king and the church, they were all coming together in the Palais Royale, which was owned and operated by the Duc de Orléans. So though the Queen’s paranoia about her husband’s cousin went too far, I mean she blamed him for everything, it’s really not hard to see why she thought him and his money were behind all the misfortunes that were about to befall her family.
When the monarchy went bankrupt and Controller General Calonne had to call the Assembly of Notables in 1787, the Duc de Orléans was of course invited, because he had to be invited, he was the First Prince of the Blood, and he of course became the most prominent critic of Calonne’s reform package. Then during the disastrous royal session of November 1787 that we talked about in episode 3.7, that was when the king was supposed to make nice and instead went off script and demanded fealty to his will, it was the Duc de Orléans who got up and stammered that what the king was doing was illegal. On this affront, got Orléans exiled from Paris again, helping to spark another round of pointed complaints against the whole Lettre des Caché system that was now being used to silence the great patron of French liberty.
When the Estates General was finally called in the spring of 1789, the Duc de Orléans was of course elected to the second estate, and he was clearly ready to stand out as one of the liberal noble champions of the third estate. After Louis failed to intimidate the third estate during another disastrous royal session, the Duc de Orléans was the one who led the delegation of 47 nobles into the now self-proclaimed National Assembly, which effectively ended any possibility that the estate might be kept separate. This forced Louis to call on everyone else to come together. We talked about all of this back in episode 3.10.
Now as if all this standing up to the king wasn’t bad enough, do you remember where it was that Camille de Moulin gave his famous speech that roused Paris to arms and led directly to the fall of the Bastille in July 1789? That’s right, he delivered it from atop a café table in the Palais Royale. This left no doubt in the minds of the king’s immediate family that the Duc de Orléans was orchestrating the revolution to oust them from power and get himself crowned king.
But though this all looks really suspicious, Orléans is actually not much of an arch puppeteer. What’s going on here is that the French Revolution was a time of rampant paranoia, when everyone — royalists and moderates and revolutionaries, whoever — were all convinced that everyone else was a part of some vast sinister plot to destroy them. So while the royal family was now convinced that Orléans was a revolutionary mastermind, really he was just a rich liberal noble who enjoyed tweaking his cousins.
If he was really aiming to overthrow them, he certainly never did much to finally close the deal. And indeed, once things started getting a little nuts in 1789, Orléans backed off and attempted to get right with the king and queen. He even accepted an order to leave the country and go on a little diplomatic mission up to England when the king asked him to. And then, if there was ever a moment for Orléans to try to capitalize on all this alleged sinister plotting, it was right after the flight to Varennes, when the king and queen were utterly discredited and suspended from power, but the duke to Orléans made no attempt to seize the crown. He, of course, had followers pushing him in that direction. But instead of doing that, we find evidence that he actually tried to help his cousins through the crisis. But of course, by that point, they were so ticked off at him that they rejected all his overtures.
After the flight to Varennes, Orléans decided that the time had finally come to make a good show of his permanent commitment to the revolution, and he started publicly calling himself Citizen Philippe Egalité, and it was under that name that he was elected to the national convention in September 1792. But once in the convention, Philippe Egalité discovered that the times had really changed around him. He sat with Robespierre in the mountain, but even as he tried to keep up with the times, he discovered that he was now little more than an embarrassment and a liability for the mountain. This was the age of the republic, and despite his superficial name change, everyone knew he was a prince of the blood. The charge that he had made revolution to get himself crowned king was no longer an accusation thrown at him by right-wing conservatives, but rather now by left-wing radicals.
In their war on the mountain, the Girondins twice made direct attacks on Philippe and accused the mountain of being his accomplices, which forced the mountain into the uncomfortable position of defending Philippe Egalité, and saying, well, now this is all a bunch of crazy talk, he’s not really like that. But even they had doubts about his real motives. When the time came to sit in judgment on the king, and Philippe Egalité voted death without appeal, it was impossible even for his alleged allies to not believe that he wasn’t still trying to pave the way for his own coronation.
Whether he really wanted to be king or not is a mystery of his inner mind that we’ll likely never know the answer to. But if Philippe Egalité did want to be king, he pretty much blew any shot he had at it quite a long time ago. In the spring of 1793, he was finally brought down by events outside his control. As we talked about back in episode 3.27, when General Dumouriez defected, Philippe Egalité’s firstborn son and heir went with him.
When this defection led to a general crackdown on aristocrats still in France, there was nothing Philippe Egalité could say or do to avoid getting swept up by the authorities. His son had just been an accomplice to one of the great treasonous betrayals of the whole revolution. Philippe Egalité was arrested in April 1793, and all his assets were seized. Once this is all said and done, I have some ambition to cobble together a book on the children that the revolution devoured, and the first chapter will be about the duc d’Orléans, who did so much in the late 1780s to harbor political dissidents and create a hotbed of activism that fed directly into the revolution, and who then gave so much patronage and money to the cause in the early going.
He gave it protection when no one else would. He was so involved in the early days that, as I said, the king and queen truly thought that the entire revolution was a massive plot by the duc d’Orléans to oust them from power. But that turned out to not really be the case, and it is a little bit ironic that those same accusations were the accusations that would bring him down, but they would ultimately come from the left, not the right.
Philippe Egalité languished in prison until November, but once the reign of terror got going, he was moved quickly to the front of the line, what with being a prince of the blood and all. On November 6, 1793, Philippe Egalité, formerly duc d’Orléans, was tried, convicted, and guillotined all on the same day. But there is an interesting little postscript to all this. After Napoleon went down and the brothers of Louis XVI came back into town to restore the monarchy, they wound up running an arch-conservative kingdom that, in the words of Talleyrand, had learned nothing and forgotten nothing.
So after about fifteen years of enduring the Bourbons attempting to turn French citizens back into French subjects, the French got sick of it all and overthrew the restored Bourbons in July 1830. The man they turned to to lead a new constitutional monarchy was the duc d’Orléans son, Louis Philippe. So just as Marie Antoinette feared, the House of Orléans did eventually succeed in overthrowing and replacing the House of Warmen, it just took a little longer than she thought. Okay, so next week there will not be an episode, because I only managed to crank out three supplementals before I left.
But when we return in two weeks, I will be just getting back from the first ever American Revolution tour, and to celebrate, I wrote up a little thing on the young French ambassador dispatched by the National Convention in early 1793 to drum up support for revolutionary France in the new United States of America. With all of Europe now arrayed against them, it was critical that France secure support from their Republican brothers in the New World. Which is why it was so unfortunate that the young ambassador the Convention sent was the needlessly provocative and endlessly infuriating CITIZEN GENET.
Marie Antoinette thought he was behind EVERYTHING
sponsor link: lynda.com/revolutions
If you enjoyed this podcast, please consider buying Mike Duncan's books:
- Hero of Two Worlds: The Marquis de Lafayette in the Age of Revolution: https://amzn.to/3VNqViT
- The Storm Before the Storm: The Beginning of the End of the Roman Republic: https://amzn.to/3h26YpW
- The History of Rome: The Republic: https://amzn.to/3UAvImK
Podscript is a personal project to make podcast transcripts available to everyone for free. Please support this project by following us on Twitter.